RESTORE™ Ingredients Breakdown
DIGESTIVE ENZYMES―BioCore EDGE Proteases and Peptidases
Additionally, BioCore EDGE™―a special digestive enzyme group of protease and peptidase enzymes―is included to help optimize the digestion of whey (casein) and vegetable protein and delivery of amino acids. This ingredient is found in both RESTORE Whey and RESTORE Veggie.
Natural Folate costs over $13,000 per kilo. Synthetic folic acid is about $25 per kilo.
In almost half of the U.S. population, synthetic folic acid can prevent important methylation metabolic pathways from taking place and cause a buildup of inflammatory homocysteine. Chronically elevated levels of homocysteine have been linked to cardiovascular disease.
Natural Folate assists normal methylation metabolic processes to occur, which helps reduce levels of homocysteine and supports the production of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, etc.) and nitric oxide, as well as glutathione.
Synthetic Folic acid can prevent the production of neurotransmitters such as the feel-good hormone serotonin, which can promote psychological issues such as depression.
Synthetic folic acid can be found in foods such as cereals and is not easily cleared out of the body. It has been implicated in psychiatric and mood disorders and competes with natural folate for cell receptor sites.
Natural folate improves DNA and RNA synthesis CRITICAL to making new cells.
Natural folate helps remove toxins from the body in phase two liver detoxification body by making toxins more water-soluble.
Methylation processes are involved in the production of new immune cells (T-cells) and methylation defects may result in a lack of immune system regulatory cells. A significant majority of patients with autoimmune disease have methylation defects because of impaired methylation of T-cells that may be involved in the production of autoantibodies.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (natural vitamin B1) is over $2,000 per kilo. Synthetic thiamine hydrochloride (HCl) or thiamine mononitrate are both around $100/kilo. Synthetic thiamine HCL or mononitrate is made from Grewe diamine (a coal tar derivative) processed with ammonia and other chemicals. No thiamine hydrochloride (HCL) or thiamine mononitrate is naturally found in food or the body. Thiamine hydrochloride (HCl) is found in most supplements and thiamine mononitrate is in most bakery products.
Thiamine hydrochloride or mononitrate conversion to thiamine pyrophosphate in the body relies on adequate magnesium, ATP (energy), and the presence of the enzyme thiamine pyrophosphokinase.
Many of the B vitamins in standard supplements are typically synthetic—anything that ends with hydrochloride, for example, is synthetic.
Naturally reduced niacin as NADH costs $3,000 per kilo. Other forms of niacin are about $40 per kilo.
Niacin is a critical ingredient for energy production and cardiovascular health. Niacin in RESTORE is in its biologically active reduced form of NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and is a patented, licensed ingredient for use in this product.
NADH does not cause flushing. But it is not to be confused with other forms of anti-flushing niacin, such as inositol hexanicotinate that doesn’t show the cardiovascular protective effects.
Additionally, other forms of supplemented niacin, such as nicotinic acid, cause the flushing side effect of niacin at higher amounts.
Other side effects of the wrong form of niacin include increased blood sugar levels, increased uric acid levels (which can affect people with gout), dry skin, stomach irritation, or heartburn.
NADH has also been shown to increase brain activity in areas used for thinking, focusing, concentration, attention, memory recall, and decision making.
Many believe vitamin C is ascorbic acid and are surprised to learn it’s not.
Ascorbic acid is an isolate, a fraction, a distillate of naturally occurring vitamin C.
Natural whole real vitamin C is sourced from whole foods—preferably organic whole foods—and is a complex of synergists and mineral co-factors.
Real vitamin C includes ascorbic acid along with a host of synergists, such as rutin, bioflavonoids, factor K, factor J, factor P, tyrosinase, ascorbinogen, and other components.
Mineral co-factors must also be available in proper amounts. Copper is necessary for vitamin C activity and other trace minerals, too.
If any of these parts are missing, there is no vitamin C, no vitamin activity. When some of them are present, the body will draw on its own stores to make up the differences so that the whole vitamin may be present. Only then will vitamin activity take place, provided that all other conditions and co-factors are present. Ascorbic acid is described merely as the “antioxidant wrapper” portion of vitamin C; ascorbic acid protects the functional parts of the vitamin from rapid oxidation or breakdown.
Did you know?
Over 90% of ascorbic acid in this country is manufactured at a facility in Nutley, New Jersey.
Here, ascorbic acid is made from a process involving cornstarch made from GMO corn and volatile acids.
Most U.S. vitamin companies then buy the bulk ascorbic acid from this single facility. After that, companies make their own labels, their own claims, and their own formulations, each one claiming to have the superior form of vitamin C, even though it all came from the same place and it’s really not vitamin C at all.
If you take a supplement that says ascorbic acid as vitamin C you can just about be certain it is synthetic and not going to give you the support you think you are getting.
Natural whole vitamin C is sourced from fruits and vegetables. Some of the best plant sources of real whole vitamin C include camu camu, acerola, and amla.
RESTORE™ contains natural, whole food, organic, real vitamin C that includes ascorbic acid and all its synergists—rutin, bioflavonoids, factor K, factor J, factor P, ryrosinase, ascorbinogen, and other components sourced from organic camu camu fruit, acerola, and amla.
Here is another interesting tidbit in case you aren’t convinced…
SYNTHETIC ASCORBIC ACID CANNOT CURE SCURVY.
(Excerpted from The Doctor Within)
Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding gums, slow wound healing, softening bones, loose teeth, ulcerations of the mouth and digestive tract, general weight loss, and fatigue. From 1650 to 1850, half of all seamen on transoceanic voyages died of scurvy. It was discovered by ship surgeon Thomas Lind in the early 1800s that British sailors were spared the disease altogether simply by a diet rich in citrus fruits. Since limes traveled well, they were the common choice during the early years, and thus the expression “limeys” was coined to describe British sailors. It was later found both at sea and in prison fare that potatoes were equally successful in preventing scurvy, and much cheaper to obtain. (Lancet. 1842)
Ascorbic acid simply cannot confer vitamin activity, as taught by the discoverer of vitamin C himself, Nobel Prize laureate Dr. Albert Szent-Györgyi.
Szent-Györgyi discovered vitamin C in 1937. In all his research, however, Szent-Györgyi found that he could never cure scurvy with the isolated ascorbic acid itself. Realizing that he could always cure scurvy with the “impure” vitamin C found in simple foods, Szent-Györgyi discovered that other factors had to be at work in order for vitamin activity to take place. So he returned to the laboratory and eventually made the discovery of another member of the vitamin C complex, as shown in the diagram above: rutin.
Glutathione is known as the master antioxidant of the body. It acts as a co-enzyme in biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions in cells.
Glutathione is also known as the master cleanser and detoxifier of the body.
Glutathione is one biochemical molecule you do not want to be without in the modern world to help prevent cellular damage and support detoxification processes.
A standard glutathione supplement typically contains just its precursors—cysteine, glutamine, and glycine. It has long been a technical problem to supplement glutathione itself and show increases in intracellular (inside the cell) levels of glutathione. The glutathione molecule often does not survive the digestive tract easily.
Precursors have been used to help increase the levels of glutathione as long as all the pieces in its synthesis are present and usable.
RESTORE does offer the standard glutathione’s precursors. However, RESTORE also offers a special, licensed stabilized form of oral glutathione developed in Switzerland that has been shown in clinical studies to pass through the digestive tract intact. It also shows increases in intracellular (inside the cell) levels of glutathione. Additionally, treatment with this stabilized form of glutathione also shows positive effects on oxidative stress biomarkers (evidence of its potent antioxidant abilities).
HERE ARE JUST SOME EXAMPLES OF GLUTATHIONE’S IMPORTANT ACTIONS
Intestinal tract cells use glutathione to eliminate the chemical preservatives, pesticides, and countless other toxins you ingest before they are absorbed and transported throughout your body.
Liver cells use glutathione as their detergent to detoxify and cleanse the blood.
Glutathione helps to remove interstitial heavy metals, especially mercury. It is believed to be one of only a few agents that can remove mercury from inside the cell.
Eye and skin cells use glutathione to protect themselves against radiation.
Glutathione may help your body defend against oxidative stress from damaging free radicals, infections, toxins, pollution, poor diets, stress, aging, and radiation.
How does it work?
Glutathione contains a sticky sulfur (SH) chemical group that acts like Velcro, so all the bad things in the body stick to it, including free radicals and toxins like mercury and other heavy metals.
Normally glutathione is recycled in the body—except when the toxic load becomes too great.
Supplemented alpha lipoic acid (also in RESTORE) can help recycle glutathione even when the toxic load is great.
S-Adenosyl-Methionine (Pronounced Sam-ee)
SAMe is known as the master methylator of the body—donating methyl groups to support many vital processes in the body (including DNA and RNA synthesis) and to help provide brain chemicals (such as the production of neurotransmitters—serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine—and their breakdown). SAMe is also involved in nitric oxide synthesis, and therefore, cardiovascular health.
SAMe is also required for the synthesis of polyamines (for cell growth, gene expression, neuronal regeneration, etc.) and trans-sulfuration (synthesis of cysteine, glutathione, and other sulfate chemicals).
SAMe also plays a role in immune system regulation and immune cell production. It also helps maintain cell membranes.
There are many other roles SAMe plays. Numerous scientific studies have shown that SAMe helps in the following ways:
- Eases symptoms of fibromyalgia.
- Eases symptoms of bursitis and tendinitis.
- Relieves chronic low back pain.
- Treats depression.
- Improves cognitive symptoms, such as the ability to recall information and remember words.
- May act on regions of the brain that regulate gene expression of amyloid proteins, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease.
- Studies suggest that taking SAMe may help treat chronic liver disease caused by medications such statins or alcoholism.
- SAMe relieves the pain of osteoarthritis.
- Increases chondrocytes (the cells that make up cartilage), cartilage thickness, and possibly decreases chondrocyte damage.
- Improves mobility.
SAMe is not found in food and must be synthesized in the body. But between 30-40% of the U.S. population has issues with the normal synthesis of SAMe from methionine.
Previously, SAMe was challenging to supplement and had to be packaged with nitrogen in blister packs or provided by injection. Recent advances in technology have allowed a patented form of SAMe that can be packaged in dry powder. This patented form of SAMe is in RESTORE™.
Colostrum is a featured ingredient in RESTORE Whey Protein Isolate Formula only and is not included in the VEGGIE formula.
(Containing naturally occurring Immunoglobulins A, G (IgG), M (IgM), and IGF, cytokines lactoferrin, proline-rich polypeptides (PRP), enzymes, and minerals and vitamins.)
The highest quality colostrum is derived from the first two milkings from cows that are grass-fed and not treated with growth hormones.
Colostrum has been clinically proven to help repair and protect the GI tract, help build lean muscle and burn fat, and impart crucial immune system support.
Colostrum provides a host of immune-supporting ingredients. Among these are proline-rich polypeptides (PRPs) that modulate the complex immune system and are, therefore, the most essential ingredient in colostrum.
Proline-rich polypeptides (PRPs), so-called because they contain an unusually high proportion of the amino acid proline, are intercellular signaling molecules that have the unique ability to modulate the immune system, turning it up when needed or turning it down when it is overactive.
They work as hormones that regulate the thymus gland (body’s central command for the immune system), stimulating an underactive immune system, or down-regulating an overactive immune system.
Colostrum also supplies immunoglobulins (such as IgG, IgA, IgE, IgM, IgD).
The function of these immunoglobulins (antibodies) is as follows:
IGG — predominant immunoglobulin in bovine milk colostrum, whose primary function is to identify and help destroy invading pathogenic microbes.
IGA — predominant immunoglobulin in human milk and colostrum, whose primary role is as the first line of defense, protects mucosal surfaces, and prevents the attachment of pathogens to them.
IGM — primary role is “first to fight”, and it enhances phagocytosis by destroying invading pathogens.
IGE — involved with the allergic reaction and histamine-associated allergic reaction; also involved with active defense against enteric parasites.
IGD — attached to B cells; it stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies by presenting antigens to them.
Laboratory analyses of both immune and growth factors from bovine colostrum indicate that they are identical to those found in human colostrum except for the fact that the levels of these factors are significantly higher in the bovine version.
Bovine colostrum is actually 40 times more abundant in immune factors than human colostrum. For example, human colostrum contains 2% of IgG (immunoglobulin G) while bovine colostrum contains 86% of IgG, the most important of the immunoglobulins found in the body.
Local protection in the form of immuno-supplementation with bovine milk immunoglobulins/antibodies has been shown to be an effective means of providing local protection to the GI tract.
Colostrum also provides these important immune factors:
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that helps deprive bacteria of the iron they require to reproduce and releases iron into the red blood cells, enhancing oxygenation of tissues. Lactoferrin helps modulates cytokine release, and its receptors have been found on most immune cells, including lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and platelets.
α — Lactalbumin and β — Lactoglobulin
These are the major nutritional whey proteins in milk and colostrum.
Cytokines are small proteins that are secreted by specific cells of the immune system. They are a category of signaling molecules that are used extensively in cellular communication. They are proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins.
Lysozymes can help support the immune system. Lysozymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that damage bacterial cell walls.
Lactoperidase-thiocyanate, peroxidase, and xanthine oxidase oxidize bacteria through their ability to release hydrogen peroxide.
Glycoproteins are a digestive factor that has been shown to help immune and growth factors survive the passage through the highly acidic digestive system.
COLOSTRUM ALSO PROVIDES GROWTH FACTORS
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Usually, it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes.
COLOSTRUM CONTAINS MANY GROWTH FACTORS.
Growth factors are peptides that function as intercellular signaling molecules to turn on or turn off the production of specific proteins in the target cells.
Colostrum helps support a healthy gut wall and is used to help patients with leaky gut and other GI issues.
COLOSTRUM ALSO SUPPLIES NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS, VITAMINS, MINERALS, AMINO ACIDS, AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Colostrum is a combination of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids that are naturally occurring. Colostrum is a rich source of both essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as essential fats, including phospholipids, which enable colostral protein protection and easy absorption in the gut by forming liposomes around them.
NALT N-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE—MORE ADRENAL AND THYROID SUPPORT
Tyrosine is the building block of thyroid hormones.
Tyrosine is also a component of the production of several essential brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, including epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells communicate and influence mood. They are necessary for the fight or flight response that involves the entire body.
Tyrosine also helps produce melanin, the pigment responsible for hair and skin color. It helps in the function of organs responsible for making and regulating hormones, including the adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary glands. It is involved in the structure of almost every protein in the body.
N-Acetyl-Tyrosine is included in RESTORE raw protein powder because it is the more rapidly absorbed and bioavailable form of the amino acid L-tyrosine. It is converted in the body to key biologic compounds and is less prone to urinary excretion.
It converts to epinephrine, dopamine, L-Dopa, Co-Q10, thyroid hormones, and melanin. Natural B vitamins are also provided in RESTORE—especially B6 and folate (not folic acid)—and are essential to assist in these conversion processes.
STRESS AND TYROSINE
Stress has almost become a normal state of being in our modern world. A constant state of stress can take a serious toll on health due to its cascade of biochemical effects from our natural flight or fight responses.
Our natural flight or fight responses help us quickly respond to the natural world or stimuli around us and energize us to help us elude harm and survive. It is intended to work for a short duration, then allow us to relax. Unfortunately, many of us are now in a constant state of on, without a healing balance of a relaxing state of off.
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, tyrosine plays a vital role in the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, two hormones that regulate your stress (fight or flight) response. When you are under stress, your body may not be able to synthesize enough tyrosine naturally, which may cause a tyrosine deficiency.
In this case of STRESS-RELATED TYROSINE DEFICIENCY, your body cannot produce the neurotransmitters that affect mood and energy. You can feel tired and depressed over time.
Additionally, STRESS-RELATED TYROSINE DEFICIENCY results in a state of SECONDARY HYPOTHYROIDISM because the body does not have adequate tyrosine to produce thyroid hormones—tyrosine is the building block for thyroid hormones. You can start to experience hypothyroid symptoms over time such as weight gain, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.
Supplementation with additional tyrosine, such as in the form of N-acetyl L-tyrosine, may help improve performance and memory when you are under psychological stress. It will also ensure adequate tyrosine for use in the production of thyroid hormones under stress (SECONDARY HYPOTHYROIDISM).
Pregnenelone is a precursor to all steroid hormones. It supports memory and adrenal function. It helps with stress reduction and reversing the effects of stress, as well as improvement of mood and energy.
Pregnenolone is a precursor hormone synthesized from cholesterol, principally in the adrenal glands, for its metabolite hormones like DHEA, progesterone, testosterone, the estrogens, and cortisol. Yet, despite its powerful metabolites, pregnenolone is acknowledged to be without significant side effects, with minimal or no anabolic, estrogenic, or androgenic activity.
Pregnenolone has been found to be 100 times more effective for memory enhancement than other steroids or steroid precursors in laboratory mice.
Pregnenolone has been reported to not only make people smarter, but happier, and it can enhance one’s ability to perform on the job while heightening feelings of well-being.
Pregnenolone has also been reported to reduce stress-induced fatigue.
It may also reverse immune suppression caused by excess cortisol levels, thereby improving resistance against viruses, bacteria and Candida albicans, parasites, allergies, and cancer.
Vitamin K2 and D3 deficiencies are very prevalent. Vitamin K2 and D3 are essential for healthy calcium and mineral metabolism.
Vitamin K2 is necessary to activate a substance called osteocalcin that is essential for calcium to be incorporated and stored in bone.
According to a recent study, the incidence of hip fractures in Japanese women seemed to be strongly influenced by their vitamin K2 intake. Studies examining the influence of vitamin D and vitamin K intake in institutionalized elderly patients compared with home dwellers also showed that a higher intake of these nutrients reduced bone fractures.1
Since 1995, high doses of vitamin K2 supplements have become an approved treatment for osteoporosis in Japan where studies support its benefits in the prevention of further decline in bone mineral density. Some women have even experienced an increase in bone mass as a result of the intervention. 1
Vitamin K2 also activates another protein, called matrix GLA Protein (MGP), in soft tissue that is responsible for removing excess calcium that can accumulate in soft tissues such as arteries and veins.
This is significant because considering about 20% of atherosclerotic plaques are comprised of calcium from the early to more advanced stages of heart disease development. Supplementing calcium alone may even contribute to cardiovascular disease.
Vitamin K2 activated MGP is considered the strongest factor in preventing, and possibly even reversing, tissue calcification involved in atherosclerosis as described in the October 2008 issue of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Other landmark studies include the European Journal of Nutrition in 2004 (Beyond deficiency: potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K2 for bone and vascular health) and Journal of Nutrition 2004 (Dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease: the Rotterdam study).
ALPHA LIPOIC ACID
Alpha Lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant, a substance that neutralizes free radicals.
What makes alpha lipoic acid unique is that it functions as an antioxidant in both water and fat mediums, unlike the more common antioxidants vitamins C and vitamin E. It also appears to be able to recycle antioxidants, such as vitamin C and glutathione, and helps restore their antioxidant capabilities once they have been used.
Alpha lipoic acid helps amplify the positive effects of other antioxidants in the body, such as glutathione and coenzyme Q10—two essential compounds in the fight against aging and disease.
Alpha lipoic acid also teams with the B-vitamin family to support energy production in the body by converting the components of food, namely carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, into stored energy for future use. Alpha lipoic acid does this by helping to protect mitochondria, the energy-producing factories of cells, from being damaged by oxidative stress, thus ensuring that energy production in the body remains efficient.
ALA increases the formation of glutathione.
INGREDIENTS IN RESTORE™ WORK TOGETHER TO IMPROVE CELLULAR ENERGETICS
CoQ10 is well-known for its heart and vascular health benefits.2 By helping the cellular powerhouses known as mitochondria burn fuel more effectively, CoQ10 is able to protect not only the heart but every cell in your body.3
Mitochondria need to burn fuel cleanly and efficiently to ensure their own integrity and longevity.
CoQ10 is an essential coenzyme that, when added to the diet, acts as a fuel additive to optimize mitochondrial performance, extracting the most energy with the least damage.
Additional benefits from CoQ10’s mitochondrial energy boosting effects include protection from neurodegenerative diseases and mental health disorders, enhanced lung function, and protection from the effects of elevated glucose in diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
New findings are adding to the already impressive list of cardiovascular benefits ascribed to CoQ10 supplementation.
FULVIC AND COQ10
Donating electrons to charge the mitochondria—the cell’s powerhouse.
Fulvic has been suggested to help restore and sustain cellular energy.1 Studies surmise that when fulvic is combined with CoQ10, cellular energy gains may substantially increase. In a preliminary study, the combination of CoQ10 and fulvic produced a 56% increase in cellular energy production in the brain, 40% better than CoQ10 alone.*
In muscle, there was a 144% increase, or 27% better than CoQ10 alone.* 2
Researchers have suggested that fulvic works to boost CoQ10’s beneficial effects by:
- Stabilizing CoQ10 in its powerful ubiquinol (reduced, electron-rich) form, thereby prolonging its action at the cellular level.* 3, 4
- Facilitating more efficient delivery of CoQ10 into the mitochondria, supporting greater cellular energy output.* 5
- Scientific analysis suggests that fulvic and other plant-derived essential substances promote mitochondrial metabolism.*
- Fulvic acids protect mitochondria against oxidative damage and reduce dangerous lipid peroxidation. 6
- Part of fulvic’s beneficial effects derives from its ability to help the mitochondria convert fats and sugars into adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the body’s main source of energy.* 5
- Fulvic acids also work as “electron shuttles” augmenting CoQ10 to speed and facilitate essential electron flow in mitochondria.* 7-10
Malic acid, sometimes known as the “apple acid,” helps the body make ATP more efficiently. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the body’s primary form of energy currency.
The hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate is the predominant reaction used to create energy for physiological processes. Thus, generation of ATP is the central goal of energy production. Supplemental malic acid has been shown in research studies to increase the amount of malate in mitochondria, and thus increase the energy production capacity of the cell.
Calcium pyruvate occurs naturally in the body as food is digested and turned into energy. It helps deliver glucose and protein to the cells and assists the body to function, burn energy, and prevent food from being stored as fat.
Calcium pyruvate increases the cycle that converts food to energy speed, making more energy available for use.
Ribose is a member of the sugar family. Along with oxygen, it plays an essential role in the production of ATP, a molecule that provides cells with most of the energy they need to function. ATP cannot be synthesized without oxygen and ribose.
Not only is ribose a structural component of the ATP molecule, but ribose also helps comprise the genetic materials, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
While coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and L-carnitine both directly support ATP recycling, the most efficient means of energy metabolism, D-ribose helps ensure there’s enough original ATP synthesized for your mitochondria to recycle.
Carnitine plays a critical role in energy production. It transports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria so they can be oxidized (“burned”) to produce energy.
It also transports the toxic compounds generated out of this cellular organelle to prevent their accumulation. Given these key functions, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscle that utilize fatty acids as a dietary fuel[1-2].
Creatine increases ATP production. It is naturally produced in the human body from amino acids from L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine primarily in the kidneys and liver. It is transported in the blood for use by muscles. Approximately 95% of the human body’s total creatine is located in skeletal muscle.
BETAINE OR TRIMETHYLGLYCINE (TMG)
Betaine or trimethylglycine (TMG) is an important methyl donor. The name trimethylglycine signifies that it has three methyl groups attached to each molecule of glycine. It is a “methyl donor,” providing extra methyl groups to hasten the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine.151
The main mechanisms of TMG are either its usage as a methyl donor, where it either directly donates a methyl group to reduce homocysteine into L-methionine (seen as cardioprotective), or helps increase bodily levels of S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAMe) or active folate molecules. Those two can then go on to donate methyl groups to other parts of the body. Because of this, supplementation of betaine is able to indirectly support whole-body methylation and directly support a reduction in homocysteine.
The other major mechanism is that TMG is an osmolyte compound, or a molecule that is shuttled in and out of a cell on demand to preserve the size of the cell and its hydration status. A high TMG concentration in a cell, similar to creatine, can preserve cellular structure and make it more resilient to stressors.
Research showing TMG’s ability to promote healthy levels of homocysteine, alone or in conjunction with other nutrients, confirms its status as an important nutrient for cardiovascular health.154-162 For example, in a recent cross-sectional survey study, participants who consumed >360 mg/d of TMG had, on average, 10% lower concentrations of homocysteine and 19% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein than those participants who consumed <260 mg/d.163
MSM is a natural part of every cell function and is concentrated in the connective tissues of the skin, nails, and hair.
MSM is a source of organic sulfur and methyl groups and is a key nutrient for its diverse health benefits.
BENFOTIAMINE (FAT-SOLUBLE DERIVATIVE OF THIAMINE—VITAMIN B1)
Benfotiamine is a fat-soluble derivative of natural vitamin B1 and is rarely found in regular supplements that contain vitamin Bs, primarily because it and its benefits are not well known.
Numerous studies have shown that benfotiamine inhibits three major pathways that lead to the formation of toxic substances, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs).5, 8, 13
AGEs have been implicated in the development and progression of numerous disorders in diabetics and non-diabetics alike. These include:
- Cardiovascular disease;14
- Diabetic neuropathy (nerve disorders);15,16
- Retinopathy (affecting vision);15,16
- Peripheral vascular disease (affecting blood vessels of the extremities);15,16
- Nephropathy (kidney disease).15,16
Currently, there is no drug available to diminish the toxic effects of the breakdown products of excess glucose. Long used as a prescription drug for diabetes in Europe, benfotiamine is now readily available as a dietary supplement in the U.S.
Benfotiamine helps relieve polyneuropathy, pain, and dysfunction affecting multiple nerves in the extremities, while also protecting against tissue-damaging oxidative stress in the brain.
It preserves healthy endothelial function, which is associated with optimal cardiovascular health and protection against peripheral vascular disease. Benfotiamine also supports the function of muscle cells in the heart.
Benfotiamine protects the kidneys against oxidative stress and loss of filtering capability, thus helping to prevent kidney disease. It also helps prevent or delay the development of diabetic and non-diabetic retinopathy, a cause of vision loss.
SUNFLOWER LECITHIN, FATTY ACIDS, AND PHOSPHOLIPIDS
Lecithin, also known as phosphatidylcholine, is a fat, or lipid, material found in the membranes of all living cells and functions to regulate the entry and exit of cellular nutrients. Sunflower lecithin has a favorable phospholipid profile. Sunflower lecithin is rich in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and omega-6 (linoleic acid), which are considered beneficial to the brain and nervous system.* In fact, your brain is approximately 30% lecithin.
Lecithin has shown positive effects in scientific studies on the following conditions:*
- Cognitive disorders;
- Helping to maintain healthy lipid levels;
- Choline depletion;
- Cardiovascular health;
- Improving memory;
- Stress-related disorders;
- Nervous system disorders.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) helps to process fats and to support cell membranes.* It is very high at birth, particularly in brain tissue, and declines over time as part of the aging process. Consuming dietary supplements high in PC aids the natural level in the cells and helps minimize the age-related decline.* Phosphatidylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, particularly when it comes to short-term memory functions.
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is a vital lipid abundant in brain tissue and is present in all tissues and cell types. Phosphatidylinositol is usually the phospholipid with the smallest presence. However, sunflower lecithin in Dr. Tennant’s RESTORE has an equal amount of PC and PI.
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is usually the second most abundant phospholipid in animal and plant lipids, and is a key building block of membrane bilayers. It is found in nervous tissue, such as the brain, nerves, neural tissue, and in the spinal cord.
Linoleic Acid (LA) is an omega-6 essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, which is abundant in many vegetable oils, such as sunflower oil. Linoleic acid is vital to proper health and aids in wound healing.*
Linolenic acid is a fatty acid. Fatty acids form the building blocks of lipid molecules, contribute to the structure of cell membranes and hormones, and provide your cells with energy, among many other functions.
Linolenic acid is regarded as essential, meaning that your body requires it for health but cannot produce it from other fatty acids. So you must obtain it through your diet.
Linolenic acid is different from linoleic acid and is the primary source of omega-3s from plants, such as flax and pumpkin seeds, in the form known as alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA.
Your body converts ALA, an essential fatty acid, into the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, which exert inflammation-lowering benefits, thin the blood, and contribute to healthy cell membranes and brain function. These fatty acids may also help prevent and treat some forms of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, heart disease, and autoimmune conditions, according to the Harvard School of Public Health.